Environmental Health Criteria 2

Book : Environmental Health Criteria 2

Author : * --

Language : English

Episode : Health-Safety-Environment

Publishing Location : Geneva

ISBN : 92 4 154062 1

Published Date : 1976

Publisher : World Health Organization WHO

Translator : --

Document Type : Report

Book No : 7597

INDEX

ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH CRITERIA FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND TERPHENYLS

1.SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

1.1 Introductory note

1.2 Summary

1.2.1 Composition and analytical problems

1.2.2 Sources and pathways in the environment

1.2.3 Concentration in the environment

1.2.4 Metabolism

1.2.5 The extent of human exposure

1.2.6 Experimental studies on the effects of PCBs and PCTs

1.2.7 Clinical studies of the effects of PCBs in man

1.2.8 Dose-effect relationships

1.3 Recommendations for further research

1.3.1 Analytical methods

1.3.2 Environmental pollution

1.3.3 Effects on man

1.3.4 Experimental studies

1.3.5 PCB substitutes

2.PROPERTIES AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

2.1 Chemical composition

2.2 Purity of products

2.3 Determination of PCB residues

2.3.1 Extraction of sample

2.3.2 Clean-up

2.3.3 Chromatographic separation of PCBs

2.3.4 Quantification of PCB content

2.3.5 Accuracy of PCB determination

2.3.6 Confirmation of identity

2.4 Determination of PCTs

SOURCES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

3.1 Production and uses of PCBs

3.2 Entry of PCBs into the environment

3.2.1 Release of PCBs into the atmosphere

3.2.2 Leakage and disposal of PCBs in industry

ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT AND TRANSFORMATION

4.1 Environmental transport

4.1.1 Airtransport

4.1.2 Transport in soil

4.1.3 Transport in water

4.1.4 Transport through biota

4.2 Transformation in the environment

4.2.1 Abiotic transformation

4.2.2 Biotransformation

4.2.3 Metabolism in limited ecosystems

4.3 Biological accumulation

5.ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND EXPOSURES

5.1 Air

5.2 Soil and sediments

5.3 Water

5.4 Living organisms

5.4.1 The influence of local pollution

5.4.2 The influence of fat content of tissues

5.4.3 The influence of the trophic stage in food chains

5.4.4 Indicator organisms

5.5 The extent of human exposure to PCBs and PCTs

5.5.1 Air and water

5.5.2 Food

5.5.3 Occupational exposure

5.5.4 Other sources of exposure

5.5.5 Biological indices of human exposure

5.5.5.1 Body fat

5.5.5.2 Blood

5.5.5.3 Human milk

5.5.6 Estimated daily intake

6.METABOLISM

6.1 Absor

6.2 Tissue distribution of PCBs

6.3 Tissue distribution of PCTs

6.4 Placental transport

6.5 Excretion and elimination

6.5.1 Milk

6.5.2 Eggs

6.5.3 Urine and faeces

6.6 Biotransformation

6.6.1 Metabolic degradation

6.6.2 The effect of structure on retention

7.EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF PCBs AND PCTs

7.1 Toxic effects in different species

7.1.1 Mammals

7.1.1.1 Acute oral and intravenous toxicity

7.1.1.2 Subacute oral toxicity

7.1.1.3 Chronic oral toxicity

7.1.1.4 Dermal toxicity

7.1.1.5 Inhalation toxicity

7.1.2 Birds

7.1.3 Aquatic organisms

7.1.3.1 Fish

7.1.3.2 Aquatic invertebrates

7.1.3.3 Microorganisms

7.2 Toxicity of impurities in commercial PCBs

7.3 Toxicity of the PCTs

7.4 Biochemical effects

7.4.1 Induction of enzymes

7.4.2 Porphyria

7.4.3 Effects on steroid metabolism

7.4.4 Other biochemical effects

7.4.5 Potentiation and antagonism by PCBs

7.5 Cytotoxic effects

7.6 Immunosuppressive effects

7.7 Effects on reproduction

7.8 Neoplasia and adenofibrosis

8. EFFECTS OF PCBs AND PCTs ON MAN—EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES

9. EVALUATION OF HEALTH RISKS TO MAN FROM EXPOSURE TO PCBs AND PCTs

9.1 Species variation

9.2 Dose-effect relationships

9.2.1 Body weight

9.2.2 Effects on liver

9.2.3 Reproduction

9.2.4 Immunosuppression

9.2.5 Skin effects

9.3 Nondetected effect levels

REFERENCES