Freedom of Association

Book : Freedom of Association

Author : * --

Language : English

Episode : Social Policy

Publishing Location : Geneva

ISBN : 92-2-109456-1

Published Date : 1996

Publisher : International Labour Office (ILO)

Translator : --

Document Type : Book

Book No : 5610

INDEX

Contents Page
Introduction......... 1
Preliminary considerations 5
Paragraphs
1. Procedure in respect of the Committee on Freedom of Association
and the social partners................................. 1-31
Function of the ILO and mandate of the Committee on Freedom
of Association ....................................... 1-9
Fundamental obligations of member States in respect of human
and trade union rights .................................. 10-19
Obligations of governments relating to the procedure of the Committee
on Freedom of Association............................... 20-23
Principles of the Committee on Freedom of Association relating to the
functions of organizations of workers and of employers ............. 24-31
2. Trade union rights and civil liberties........................ 32-204
General principles..................................... 32-44
Right to life, security and the physical and moral integrity
of the person........................................ 45-63
The sentencing of trade unionists to imprisonment................. 64-66
System of education through labour.......................... 67-68
Arrest and detention of trade unionists........................ 69-84
Preventive detention and judicial safeguards..................... 85-98
Detentions during a state of emergency........................ 99-101
Guarantee of due process of law............................ 102-119
Special bodies and summary procedures....................... 120-121
Freedom of movement.................................. 122-129
Rights of assembly and demonstration........................ 130-151
1. Meetings of organizations in their premises and in relation to
labour disputes................................. 130-131
2. Public meetings and demonstrations.................... 132-149
3. International trade union meetings...................... 150-151
Freedom of opinion and expression . 152-169
-
Paragraphs
1. General principles ............................... 152-158
2. Authorization and censorship of publications............... 159-163
3. Publications of a political character .................... 164-167
4. Seizure of publications ............................ 168-169
Freedom of speech at the International Labour Conference ........... 170
Protection against disclosure of information on trade union membership
and activities........................................ 171-173
Protection of trade union premises and property .................. 174-185
State of emergency and the exercise of trade union rights ............ 186-199
Questions of a political nature affecting trade union rights............ 200-204
3. Right of workers and employers, without distinction whatsoever,
to establish organizations without previous authorization........... 205-270
General principles..................................... 205-207
Distinctions based on race, political opinion or nationality............ 208-211
Distinctions based on occupational category..................... 212-241
1. Public servants................................. 212-218
2. Members of the armed forces and the police............... 219-222
3. Civilian staff in the armed forces...................... 223-224
4. Agricultural workers.............................. 225-226
5. Plantation workers............................... 227
6. Employees of airlines............................. 228
7. Hospital personnel............................... 229
8. Managerial and supervisory staff...................... 230-234
9. Self-employed workers and the liberal professions ........... 235
10. Temporary workers .............................. 236
11. Workers undergoing a period of work probation ............ 237-238
12. Concessionaries (sales agents)........................ 239
13. Workers in export processing zones.................... 240-241
Other distinctions ..................................... 242-243
Requirement of previous authorization ........................ 244-246
Legal formalities for the establishment of organizations.............. 247-250
Requirements for the establishment of organizations (minimum number
of members, etc.)..................................... 251-258
Registration of organizations .............................. 259-270
4. Right of workers and employers freely to establish and join
organizations of their own choosing......................... 271 -330
Principles of trade union structure and unity..................... 271-300
Sanctions imposed for attempting to establish organizations ........... 301-302
Favouritism or discrimination in respect of particular organizations ...... 303-308
Admissible privileges for most representative unions ............... 309-315
Paragraphs
Right to join organizations of their own choosing ................. 316-320
Union security clauses .................................. 321-330
5. Free functioning of organizations. Right to draw up constitutions
and rules.......................................... 331-349
Principles relating to legislation in this respect and interference by
the authorities ....................................... 331-345
Model constitutions.................................... 346
Racial discrimination................................... 347
Relations between first-level trade unions and higher-level organizations . . . 348-349
6. Right to elect representatives in full freedom .................. 350-415
General principles..................................... 350-367
Racial discrimination ................................... 368
Employment in the profession or enterprise..................... 369-374
Duration of membership of the organization...................... 375-376
Political opinions or activities.............................. 377-380
Moral standing of candidates for office........................ 381
Nationality ......................................... 382
Criminal record .............................,........ 383-387
Re-election ......................................... 388-389
Obligation to participate in ballots........................... 390-391
Intervention by the authorities in trade union elections .............. 392-402
Challenges to trade union elections .......................... 403-406
Removal of executive committees and the placing of trade unions
under control........................................ 407-415
7. Right of organizations to organize their administration............ 416-446
Internal administration of organizations........................ 418-422
Control over the internal activities of trade unions................. 423-427
Financial administration of organizations....................... 428-446
' 1. Financial independence in respect of the public authorities...... 428-433
2. Union dues ................................... 434-437
3. Control and restrictions on the use of trade union funds........ 438-446
8. Right of organizations freely to organize their activities and to
formulate their programmes ............................. 447-472
General principles..................................... 447-448
Political activities and relations............................. 449-458
Other activities of trade union organizations (protest activities,
sit-ins, public demonstrations, etc.).......................... 459-472
Paragraphs
9. Right to strike....................................... 473-605
Importance of the right to strike and entitlement to exercise the right..... 473-478
Objective of the strike (strikes on economic and social issues, political
strikes, solidarity strikes, etc.) ............................. 479-489
Scope of the strike .................................... 490-495
Various types of strike action........................,..... 496-497
Prerequisites ........................................ 498-514
Recourse to compulsory arbitration .......................... 515-521
Responsibility for declaring a strike illegal...................... 522-525
Cases in which strikes may be restricted or even prohibited, and
compensatory guarantees................................. 526-553
1. Acute national emergency .......................... 527-530
2. Public service.................................. 531-539
3. Essential services................................ 540-545
4. Compensatory guarantees in the event of the prohibition of strikes
in the public service or in essential services............... 546-553
Situations in which a minimum service may be imposed to guarantee the
safety of persons and equipment (minimum safety service)............ 554-555
Situations and conditions under which a minimum operational service
could be required ..................................... 556-562
Examples of when the Committee has considered that the conditions were
met for requiring a minimum operational service.................. 563-568
Non-compliance with minimum service........................ 569
Back-to-work orders, the hiring of workers during a strike, requisitioning
orders ............................................ 570-577
Interference by the authorities during the course of the strike.......... 578
Police intervention during the course of the strike................. 579-582
Pickets............................................ 583-587
Wage deductions...................................... 588-589
Sanctions .......................................... 590-604
1. In the event of a legitimate strike...................... 590-597
2. Cases of abuse while exercising the right to strike........... 598-600
3. In cases of peaceful strikes.......................... 601-603
4. Large-scale sanctions ............................. 604
Discrimination in favour of non-strikers ....................... 605
10. Right of workers' and employers' organizations to establish federations and confederations and to affiliate with international organizations of
employers and workers................................. 606-659
Establishment of federations and confederations .................. 606-620
Rights of federations and confederations....................... 621
Affiliation with international organizations of workers and employers..... 622-648
---Paragraphs
1. General principles............................... 622-626
2. Intervention by the public authorities ................... 627-628
3. Consequences of international affiliation ................. 629-648
Participation in ILO meetings.............................. 649-659
11. Dissolution and suspension of organizations ................... 660-689
Voluntary dissolution................................... 660
Dissolution on account of insufficient membership................. 661-663
Dissolution and suspension by administrative authority.............. 664-674
Dissolution by legislative measures or decree.................... 675-676
Intervention by the judicial authorities ........................ 677-683
Use made of the assets of organizations that are dissolved............ 684-689
1. General principles ............................... 684-686
2. Transition to a situation of trade union pluralism............ 687-689
12. Protection against anti-union discrimination ................... 690-758
General principles..................................... 690-700
Acts of discrimination .................................. 701-723
Trade union leaders and representatives ....................... 724-736
Need for rapid and effective protection............;........... 737-754
Reinstatement of trade unionists in their jobs .................... 755-757
Discrimination against employers ........................... 758
13. Protection against acts of interference....................... 759-780
Solidarist associations................................... 772-780
1. Definition .................................... 772-773
2. Safeguards to prevent them carrying out trade union activities .... 774-780
14. Collective bargaining .................................. 781-923
The right to bargain collectively............................ 781-784
Collective bargaining with representatives of non-unionized workers...... 785-791
The workers and matters covered by collective bargaining............ 792-813
The principle of bargaining in good faith....................... 814-818
Recognition of the most representative organizations ............... 819-843
The principle of free and voluntary negotiation................... 844-859
1. Level of bargaining .............................. 851-857
2. Voluntary nature of procedures designed to facilitate bargaining . . . 858-859 Restrictions on the principle of free and voluntary bargaining.......... 860-903
1. Compulsory arbitration............................ 860-865
2. Intervention by the authorities in collective bargaining......... 866-903
Paragraphs
(a) The drafting of collective agreements ................ 866-868
(b) Administrative approval of freely concluded collective
agreements and the national economic policy............ 869-874
(c) Administrative or legislative interventions which prevent compliance with currently applicable collective agreements
or require the renegotiation of existing collective agreements . . 875-880
(d) Compulsory extension of the period for which collective
agreements are in force......................... 881
(e) Restrictions imposed by the authorities on future collective
bargaining ................................. 882-890
(f) Restrictions on clauses to index wages to the cost of living . . . 891-892
(g) Budgetary powers and collective bargaining ............ 893-901
(h) Other forms of intervention by the authorities ........... 902-903
Time-limits for bargaining................................ 904
Duration of collective agreements........................... 905
Extension of collective agreements .......................... 906-909
Relationship between individual employment contracts and collective
agreements ......................................... 910-912
Incentives to workers to give up the right to collective bargaining....... 913
Closure of the enterprise and application of the collective agreement ..... 914
Relationship between ILO Conventions........................ 915-923
15. Consultation with the organizations of workers and employers....... 924^941
General principles..................................... 924-928
Consultation during the preparation and formulation of legislation ....... 929-933
Consultation and employment flexibility ....................... 934
Consultation and processes of restructuring, rationalization and staff
reduction .......................................... 935-940
Consultation and the modification of bargaining structures............ 941
16. Participation of organizations of workers and employers on various
bodies and in various procedures .......................... 942-949
17. Facilities for workers' representatives ....................... 950-961
General principles..................................... 950-951
Representation functions................................. 952
Collection of dues..................................... 953
Access to the workplace................................. 954-957
Facilities on plantations ................................. 958-959
Facilities in the event of staff reductions....................... 960-961
18. Conflicts within the trade union movement.................... 962-974
Contents xi
Page
Annexes
I. Procedures of the Fact-Finding and Conciliation Commission and the Committee on Freedom of Association for the examination of
complaints alleging violations of freedom of association........... 207
II. Chronological index of cases ........................... 219