Gender,Education And Child Labour İn Turkey

Book : Gender,Education And Child Labour İn Turkey

Author : * --

Language : English

Episode : Child Labor

Publishing Location : Cenevre

ISBN : 92-2-115569-2

Published Date : 2004

Publisher : International Labour Offıce Geneva

Language : Turkish

Document Type : Book

Book No : 5293

INDEX

Foreword................................
Acknowledgements ........................
Executive summary........................
1 Introduction ...........................
1.1 The international context.............
1.2 The child labour situation in Turkey.....
1.3 Purpose of the study ................
1.4 Definitions and concepts .............
1.5 Organization of the chapters ..........
2 Overview of ILO-IPEC projects in Turkey ....
2.1 Creating an enabling environment.......
2.1.1 Building institutional infrastructure ......
2.1.2 Expanding knowledge through research
and data collection..................
2.1.3 Advocacy and training for awareness raising
2.2 Supporting working children in the struggle against child labour .................
2.2.1 Sectoral vocational training............
2.2.2 Enhancing educational attainment.......
2.2.3 A good practice in eliminating child labour .
2.3 Achievements and remaining challenges
in combating child labour in Turkey.....
Gender, education and child labour in Turkey
3 Approach to the issue of gender
differentials in child labour ........................
3.1 Towards a gender sensitive conceptualization
of the division of labour .....................
3.1.1 Diverse forms of work........................
3.1.2 The sex-based division of labour ................
3.1.3 Complementary levels of analysis................
3.2 Methodological framework....................
4 Macro-level analysis.............................
4.1 Development experience......................
4.1.1 Human Development Indicators.................
4.2 Continuities and discontinuities
in the process of change......................
4.2.1 Demographic profile.........................
4.3 Economic environment.......................
4.3.1 Employment and unemployment.................
4.3.2 Income distribution and social welfare.............
4.4 The education system........................
4.4.1 Structure of the education system ...............
4.4.2 Gender and regional disparities .................
4.5 Concluding remarks.........................
5 Opportunities and bottlenecks
in the schooling of children........................
5.1 Introduction ..............................
5.1.1 Compulsory basic education....................
5.1.2 School enrolment in compulsory basic education .....
5.1.3 Regional disparity in enrolment rates in basic education
5.1.4 Regional primary boarding schools and provincial primary pension schools.......................
5.7.5 The bussing system..........................
5.1.6 Recognizing the important link between
child labour and education.....................
5.2 Secondary education ........................
5.2.1 School enrolment in secondary education ..........
5.2.2 Non-formal education........................
Table of ci
5.3 Quality of the educational system........
5.3./ Budgetary allocations for education.......
5.3.2 Student-teacher ratio..................
5.3.3 Curriculum.........................
5.4 Concluding remarks...................
6 Employment and schooling outcomes of children .
6.1 Introduction .......................
6.2 Schooling and work patterns
of children from 6 to 14 years old........
6.3 School and work outcomes
of 15-17 year-olds ...................
6.4 Age-employment profiles ..............
6.5 Age at labour market entry.............
6.6 Hours of work......................
6.7 Children in hazardous child labour.......
6.8 Sector of economic activity ............
6.9 Employment status
of children in market work.............
6.10 Occupation held.....................
6.11 Establishment size and child employment . .
6.12 Ocupational hazard
and work-related accidents.............
6.13 Reasons for work....................
6.14 Reasons for not attending school ........
6.15 Household dynamics and child labour.....
6.16 Concluding remarks..................
7 Conclusion.............................
7.1 Enhancing the database on child labour . . .
7.2 Possible areas of intervention...........
7.2.1 Focusing on improving household incomes and access to education to reduce child labour
7.2.2 Further policy recommendations..........
Gender, education and child labour in Turkey
References.........................................
Acronyms .........................................
Appendix I: Education indicators........................
Appendix II: Terms of reference of the study............
Appendix III: Biographic note on the authors............
LisLoOables^nifigures
Chapter 4
Tables
4.1. Comparison of Human Development Indices for 2000
4.2. Income shares of households by quintiles - 1994
4.3. Distribution of literate population across different educational categories, 1970-2000
4.4. Distribution of literate population across different educational categories by sex, 1970-2000
4.5. Net enrolment rates by sex, 2000
4.6. Distribution of population across different educational categoric! by region, 2000
4.7. Distribution of population across educational categories by regia and sex, 2000
4.8. Net enrolment rates by region, 2000
4.9. Educational profiles of selected countries participating in ILO-IPEC
Figures
4.1. Population pyramid for Turkey
4.2. Changes in illiteracy rates overtime by sex
Chapter 5 Tables
5.1. Enrolment of male and female children in basic education, 1997-2000
5.2. Net enrolment rates in primary education, 1990-96
5.3. Regional net enrolment rates in basic education in 1990-91 and 2000-01 school years
viii
Table of contents
5.4. Regional net enrolment rates in basic education by sex, 2000-01 school year
5.5. Regional enrolment in RPBSs by sex, 2000-01 school year
5.6. Regional enrolment in PPPSs by sex, 2000-01 school year
5.7. Number of children bussed to school in basic education
5.8. Net enrolment rate in secondary education, 1990-91 and 2000-01 school years
5.9. New enrolments in general and vocational high schools, 1996-2000
5.10. Regional net enrolment rates in secondary education in 1990-91 and 2000-01 school years
5.11. Regional net enrolment rates in secondary education by sex. 2000-01 school year
5.12. Enrolment in vocational and apprenticeship training centres, 1996-2000
5.13. Number of students per teacher in basic education, 1998-2000
5.14. Number of students per teacher at different levels of formal education, 1985-2000
5.15. Number of students per teacher by region in 1990-91 and 2000-01 school years
Figures
5.1. Allocation to education of public resources to education
Chapter 6
Tables
6.1. Distribution of 6-14 year-olds by employment status, region and sex
6.2. School enrolment rates of 6-14 year-olds
6.3. Distribution of children (6-14 years) across various activities
6.4. Employment and schooling of 15-17 year-olds
6.5. Employment of all children by region
6.6. Age at first employment (6-14 years)
6.7. Nature of first job held by children (6-14 years) in 1994 and 1999
6.8. Mean hours of market and household work
6.9. Distribution of children in market work by hours of work
6.10. Distribution of children in household work by hours of work 6.11 Percentage of working children in hazardous work
6.12. Occupational distribution of children in market work in 1999
6.13. Occupational distribution of children in market work in 1994
Gender, education and child labour in Turkey
6.14. Distribution of children in wage work by establishment size
6.15. Reasons for employment in market work by sex (6-14 year-< 6.16 Reasons for employment in market work by sex (15-17 year-
Figures
6.1. Employment status of 6-14 year-olds
6.2. Age-employment and schooling patterns of male children in
6.3. Age-employment and schooling patterns of female children ir
6.4. Age-employment and schooling patterns of male children in
6.5. Age-employment and schooling patterns of female children ir
6.6. Market work and schooling of male and female children in
6.7. Distribution of 6-14 year-olds across industries in rural area
6.8. Distribution of 15-17 year-olds across industries in rural are.
6.9. Distribution of 6-14 year-olds across industries in urban are;
6.10. Distribution of 15-17 year-olds across industries in urban an
6.11. Distribution of 6-14 year-olds into wage and non-wage work in urban areas
6.12. Distribution of 6-14 year-olds into wage and non-wage work rural areas
6.13. Distribution of 15-17 year-olds into wage and non-wage wor urban areas
6.14. Distribution of 15-17 year-olds into wage and non-wage wor rural areas
6.15. Employment rate by age groups in rural Turkey
6.16. Employment rate by age groups in urban Turkey
6.17. Reasons given by 6-14 year-olds for not attending school
6.18. Reasons given by 15-17 year-olds for not attending school

Appendix
Al. Net enrolment rates in 1985, 1990 and 2000
A2. Net enrolment rates by region in 1985
A3. Net enrolment rates by region in 1990
A4. Net enrolment rates by region in 2000
A5. Net enrolment rates by province in 1985
A6. Net enrolment rates by province in 1990
A7. Net enrolment rates by province in 2000
A8. Number of students per teacher by region in 1985
A9. Number of students per teacher by region in 1990
A10. Number of students per teacher by province in 1985, 1990 and: