Migration And Development

Book : Migration And Development

Author : * Nermin Abadan-Unat * Ruşen Keleş

Language : English

Episode : Population

Publishing Location : Ankara

Publisher : Ajans-Türk Press

Document Type : Book

Book No : 2633

INDEX


TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables
Introduction
CHAPTER 1. GENERAL ASPECTS
R. Keleş; H. Van Renselaar
1.1. Migratory Labour From Mediterranean Countries ...
N. Abadan-Unat
1.2. Evolution of Turkish Migration Before and During the Current European Recession ..............................
R. Penninx; H. Van Henseiaar
1.2.1. Institutional in Framework Turkey
1.2.2. Recruitment Procedures
1.2.3. Allocation Policies
1.2.4. Statistical Description of Turkish Migratory Labour
1.2.4.1. Total Recruitments Mediated the Employment Service
1.2.4.2. Distribution by Sex of Recruitments by the Employment Service
1.2.4.3. Demands for Turkish Workers from Abroad
1.2.4.4. Distribution of Anonymous and Nominative Recruitments
1.2.4.5. Regional Origin of Workers Sent Abroad by the Employment Service
1.2.4.6. Profesional Qualification of Turkish Workers Sent Abroad
1.2.4.7. Waiting List
1.2.4.8. Turkish Workers in Host Countries 1.2.5. Conclusion
1.3. International Relations, Legal and Political
Dimensions
E. Onulduran; H. Van Renselaar
1.3.1. The Begining of External Labour Migration
1.3.2.1. Bilateral Agreements Between Turkey and Host Countries
1.3.2.2. Reading Between the Lines of the Agreements
1.3.3. Turkish Entrace in the E.E.C. and the Free Circulation of Labour
1.3.4. Recent Activities of the Council of the European
Community In Favour of Migrant Workers and Their Families
1.3.5. Concluding Remarks
CHAPTER 2. MIGRATION THROUGH THE EYES OF POLITICAL PARTIES, TRADE UNIONS, EMPLOYER ASSOCIATIONS AND BUREAUCRACY ....................................
N. Abadan-Unat with A. Ünsal
2.1. Historical Phases of Turkish Labour Migration ......
2.1.1. Ignoring a Rapidly Growing Exodus : 1956-1960
2.1.2. Acknowledgement of the De Facto Situation :
Officializatlon Through the First Five Year Plan : 1962-1967
2.1.3. Migration as a Balancing Factor in Turkish Frail Economy
2.1.4. 1973-1975; Return to Multiparty Life, Declining Recruit­ment Increasing Unemployment Abroad and at Home, Decline in Remittances
2.2. Major Issues of Turkish Migration in 1975 as Seen by the Leading Political Personalities of Turkey .........
2.2.1. Expectations of Massive Return Movements
2.2.2. Problems of Training and Vocational Education
2.2.3. Workers Savings and Investment Tendencies
2.2.4. The Function and Roles of Banks, especially the State Industry and Workers'Investment Bank
2.2.5. Trade Union Policies
2.2.5.1. TÜRK-iŞ : Political Non - Alignment, Concern for Turkish Workers Abroad, Joint Turkish - German Committee
2.2.5.2. Appraisal of Migration Problems by Halil Tung, President of TÜRK-iŞ
2.2.5.3. DİSK-The Federation of Revolutionary Workers' Trade
Unions 2.2.6. Business and Employers Associations
2.2.6.1. Organisation of Business Associations
22.6.2. Employers Federation, Employers Confederation and Private Enterprise Associations25.6.3. The Views of Representatives of Private Industry
2.2.7. Positions Defended by Leading Turkish Businessmen
2.2.8. Politicians and Regional Development
2.2.8.1. Characteristics of Regional Administration
2.2.8.2. New Responsabilities for Local Politicians as Expressed in Their Own Words
2.2.8.3. Summary of Prominent Patterns of Local Political Action
on Behalf of Migrants 2.2.9. Migrants as seen by Bureaucrats: the Role of the
Central Administration 2.2.9.1. Poor Coordination
2.3. Concluding Remarks
CHAPTER 3. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INITIATIVES AIMED AT USING EXTERNAL LABOUR MIGRATION FOR DEVELOPMENT
H. Van Renselaar; L. Van Velzen
3.1. Public Initiatives
3.1.1. Village Development Cooperatives (VDC's)
3.1.1.1. Member Contributions
3.1.1.2. Procedures for VDC Approval
3.1.1.3. Historical Development of VDC's
3.1.1.4. VDC Project Finances
3.1.1.5. Concluding Remarks
3.1.2. Workers' Joint Stock Corporations
3.1.2.1. Background
3.1.2.2. Some Characteristics of Workers' Companies
3.1.2.3. Impediments
3.1.2.4. Recent Developments
3.1.2.5. Appraisal
3.1.3. Training for Skilled Labour and Management
3.1.4. Special Credit Allocation, National and Foreign
3.1.5. State Industry and Workers' Investment Bank
3.2. Private Initiatives
3.2.1. Foreign Bank Loans
3.2.2. National Bank Loans
3.2.3. Private Companies
3.3. Concluding Remarks CHAPTER 4. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND
MİGRATORY LABOUR
R. Keleş
4.1. Internal Migration. Urbanization and Migratory
Labour
4.2. Regional Development Policies
4.2.1. The first Five Year Development Plan: 1963-1967
4.2.2. The Second Five Year Development Plan: 1968-1972
4.2.3. The Third Five Year Development Plan: 1973-1977
4.3. Appendx
CHAPTER 5. MIGRATORY LABOUR, BOĞAZLIYAN
DISTRICT
R. Penninx; L. Van Velzen
5.1. Migration to Europe from Boğazlıyan District: a description
5.1.1. Boğazlıyan Compared to Other Districts in Yozgat
5.1.2. Skilled Migrants
5.1.4. Migration of Workers' Families
5.1.5. Socio - Economic Background of Migrants
5.2. The Process of Migrating
5.2.1. Easier Said Than Done
5.2.2. Alternate Routes Abroad
5.2.2.1. Anonymous Recruitment throught the ES
5.2.2.2. Nominative Recruitment through the ES
5.2.2.3. Reunion
5.2.2.4. Village Development Co-Operative Contingents
5.2.2.5. «Tourism»
5.2.2.6. Trade in Passports
5.2.2.7. Network versus Institutional Migration
5.3. Patterns of Return
5.3.1. Duration of Stay in Europe
5.3.2. Return : Provisional or Final ?
5.4. Summary ...........................CHAPTER 6. THE ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF MIGRATION IN BOGAZLIYAN DISTRICT
R. Penninx; L. Van Velzen
6.1. Introduction
6.1.1. The P.T.T.
6.1.2. Banks
6.2. The Effects of Migration on Agriculture in Boğazlıyan District ............................................................
6.2.1. Background
6.2.2. Description of Land Use in Bogazliyan District
6.2.3. The Institutional Setting
6.2.4. Migrants' Investment in Agriculture
6.2.4.1. Land
6.2.4.2. Investments in Tractors and Other Farm Machinery
6.2.4.3. Migrants' Investments in Livestock
6.2.4.4. The Rural Productivity Effects of Migration
6.2.5. Migrants' Investment in Agriculture and Job Opportunities
6.2.6. Migration and Work Relations Concerning Cultivation of Land
6.3. Non-Agricultural Migrant Investments in Productive and Distributive Activities
6.3.1. Shops and Workshops
6.3.2. Migrants' Contribution to Changing Productive and Distributive Activities
6.3.2.1. Productive Activities
6.3.2.2. The Service Sector
CHAPTER 7. INVESTMENT IN HOUSING
R. Penninx; L. Van Velzen
7.1. Scope of Investment in Houses in Villages, in Bogaz­liyan Town and Beyond the District .
7.1.1. Introduction
7.1.2. Housing Construction in Villages
7.1.3. Housing Construction in Bogazliyan Town
7.1.4. Construction of Houses by People of Bogazliyan Origin Outside of the District7.2. Housing Investment and Internal Migration
7.2.1. Housing Investments from Village Perspective
7.3. Investments in Housing As a Means to Earn Extra Income ............................................................
7.4. Prices in the Housing Sector ..............................
7.5. Construction and Regional Development ...............
7.5.1. Employment Effects
7.5.2. Income Effects
7.6. The Building of a House as an Investment: Right or Wrong?
R. Keleş
CHAPTER 8. EVALUATION OF MIGRANTS'
INVESTMENT AND THEIR EFFECTS ON DEVELOPMENT IN BOĞAZLIYAN DISTRICT
R. Penninx; L. Van Velzen
8.1. Investment Possibilities
8.1.1. Institutional Limiting Factors
8.1.2. The Scale of Investment as a Limiting Factor
8.1.3. Small-Scale Migrants' Investments and Their Objective Chances of Success
8.1.3.1. Investment Patterns
8.1.3.2. Investment Following Succesful Precedents 8.1.4. Conclusion : Individual Investors
8.2. Economic Consequences of International Migration: District Perspective ..........................................
8.2.1. Changes In Quantity of Goods Produced and Services
Provided as a Consequence of External Migration
8.2.1.1. The Agrarian Sector
8.2.1.2. The Industrial and Artisan Sector
8.2.1.3. Service and Distributive Sector
8.2.1.4. Construction
8.2.1.5. Conclusion
8.2.2. Employment Effects of International Migration
8.2.2.1. Absorption Capacity of Boğazlıyan District
8.2.2.2. Migration as an Alternative for Surplus Labour
8.2.2.3. Return of Migrants and Job Opportunities8.2.3. Migration and the Rise in Prices of Goods
8.2.4. Changes in Income Distribution and Related Changes in Power Relations
8.2.4.1. Global Typology of Income Groups in Boğazlıyan District prior to External Migration
8.2.4.2. Re-Alignments Within and Among Income Groups as a
Consequence of Migration 8.2.5. Conclusions
8.3. "Spatial" Consequences of the External Migration for Bogazhyan District
8.3.1. The Relation of Bogazhyan Municipality to the Surround­ing Rural Area
8.4. Conclusions
CHAPTER 9. THE SOCIAL EFFECTS OF MIGRANT
LABOUR ON THE DISTRICT LEFT BEHIND : OBSERVATIONS IN TWO VILLAGES OF
BOĞAZLIYAN
L. Yenisey
9.1. Changing Family Roles
9.1.1. Type of Household, before, during and sfter Migration
9.1.2. Decision-Making and Authority
9.1.3. Task Distribution
9.1.4. Forms of Continuing Contact of Migrants Abroad and their Wives
9.1.5. Children
9.1.6. Conclusions
9.2. Changes in the Education of Village Children .........
9.2.1. Available Educational Facilities
9.2.2. Parental Attitudes Expressed Towards Educating Children
9.2.3. Brief Inventory of Actual Participation in Education
9.2.4. Additional Costs of Education Beyond Primary School : Accomodation
9.2.5. Migrant's Children Educated Abroad
9.2.6. Concluding Remarks9.3. Changing Patterns of Consumption .....................
9.3.1. Background Information
9.3.2. A Comparison of Homes : The Use and Furnishings of Migrant and Non- Migrants Houses in Müftükışla and Yeşilhisar
9.3.3. Where Popular Purchases Come From
9.3.4. Decline of Home - Products : Consumption From Shops
9.3.5. Weddings
9.3.6. Concluding Remarks
CHAPTER 10. SUMMING UP
Nermin Abadan - Unat
10.1. General Trends
10.1.1. Unequality within the International Division of Labour
10.1.2. Export of Human Capital Leads to Brain and Brawn Drain
10.1.3. Mistaken Forms of Investment, Decrease of International Competitiveness
10.1.4. Shift Towards Consumption - Oriented Behaviour
10.1.5. Limited Socialization and Political Participation
10.1.6. Uprooted Family-Life and Changing Individual Expectations
10.2. Application of :the Models at the National Level ...
10.2.1. Employment Effects of Migration
10.2.2. Economic Effects of Workers' Remittances
10.2.3. Economic Role and Investment Preferences of Returning Migrants
10.2.4. Role of Government in Regional Development
10.2.5. Benefits of Migration-Role of Remittances
10.2.6. Impact of Migration on Turkey's Manpower Structure
10.2.7. Turkey's Increasing Economic Dependence
10.2.8. Limited Participation in Social and Political Life
10.3. Application of the Models to the Boğazlıyan District
10.3.1. Migration as a Self-Perpetuating Process in a Rural Setting
10.3.2. Capital Flow to No Avail
10.3.3. Return of Failure
10.3.4. Increasing Imbalances Final Remarks