Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

Book : Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health

Author : * --

Language : English

Episode : Health-Safety-Environment

Publishing Location : Danimarka

ISSN : 0355-3140

Skin : 19-2

Period : bimonthly

Published Date : 1993

Publisher : Finnish Institute of Occupational Health

Document Type : Periodical

Book No : 1361

INDEX

CONTENTS
3 PREFACE
5 CONTENTS
7 SUMMARY
9 NITROGEN OXIDES IN AMBIENT AIR - PROPERTIES, SOURCES AND
CONCENTRATIONS
9 Physical and chemical properties of nitrogen oxides
10 Sources, concentrations and trends in air quality
11 Some methods used for determining nitrogen oxides
11 Relations between 1 -h, 24-h and long-term mean values
12 Atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models
12 Fixed stations versus personal samplers
12 Air quality guidelines and standards for nitrogen dioxide
12 References
14 EXPOSURE
14 Outdoor concentrations and human exposure
14 Indoor concentrations and human exposure
16 Personal exposure assessment and activity patterns
17 Relationships between indoor, outdoor and personal measurements of
nitrogen dioxide
18 Dose and biological markers
18 Estimates of nitrogen dioxide exposure among the general Swedish population
18 Summary and concluding remarks
19 References
21 ABSORPTION AND METABOLIC FATE OF NITROGEN OXIDES
21 Basic data on the respiratory organs
21 Absorption in the respiratory tract
22 Transformation in the lung
22 Metabolites in blood and other body fluids or organs
23 Excretion pathways of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide
24 Sources of nitrite and the formation of N-nitroso compounds
25 Summary and concluding remarks
25 References
28 TOXICITY INDUCED BY NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
AND ISOLATED CELL SYSTEMS
28 Effects on pulmonary function
28 Effects on lung morphology
29 Biochemical mechanisms for lung injury
30 Effects on host defense 33 Systemic effects of nitrogen dioxide 33 Summary and concluding remarks 33 References
37 CONTROLLED STUDIES ON HUMANS
37 Effects of nitrogen oxides on lung function
39 Effects of nitrogen dioxide on airway responsivcness
41 Effects on alveolar permeability and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid
41 Subjective symptoms and odor threshold
41 Summary and concluding remarks
42 References
44 EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON NITRIC OXIDE 44 Endogenous formation 44 Effects of exposure 46 Summary and concluding remarks 47 References
50 GENOTOXICITY 50 Nitrogen oxides 52 Nitrite and nitrate 53 Nitrosamincs
53 Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons 53 Alkenes and nitrogen dioxide 53 Summary and concluding remarks 54 References
57 EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES 57 Acute effects
58 Symptoms and diseases of the respiratory tract in children 63 Allergic sensitization in children 63 Symptoms and diseases of the respiratory tract in adults 65 Pulmonary function 65 Occupational exposures 66 Summary and concluding remarks 67 References
70 HEALTH RISK EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDED GUIDELINE VALUES 70 Evaluation of health effects 71 Recommended guideline values